News Scan for Jul 13, 2022

Co-infection with influenza may suppress replication of SARS-CoV-2

A research yesterday within the Journal of Virology means that, whereas co-infection with influenza A and SARS-CoV-2 doesn’t change the trajectory of influenza A, contracting influenza A primary may suppress any COVID-19 an infection attributable to SARS-CoV-2.

The research is predicated on experiments performed in cultured cells and golden hamsters, and has but to be replicated in people. Nevertheless, researchers say the findings may have implications for the upcoming chilly and flu season, which is able to deliver extra co-circulating influenza and COVID-19 viruses.

“This research could possibly be used for example of how an immune response to one thing unrelated can present safety towards SARS-CoV-2,” stated senior research creator Benjamin R. tenOever, PhD, in a press launch from the American Society of Microbiology (ASM), which publishes the journal.

Within the hamster experiments, animals contaminated with influenza A virus (IAV) 3 days previous to an infection with SARS-CoV-2 generated decrease SARS-CoV-2 virus titers than did animals that had been contaminated solely with SARS-CoV-2 at every time level, the authors stated. Time factors had been days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 post-infection.

When the experiment was reversed, an preliminary SARS-CoV-2 an infection didn’t alter the severity of influenza A an infection.

“We discover that IAV interferes with SARS-CoV-2 replication within the lung, much more than 1 week after IAV clearance. In distinction, IAV exhibited strong replication within the respiratory tract of hamsters, whatever the presence of SARS-CoV-2,” the authors concluded. “These information recommend the presence of things intrinsic to or induced by IAV which will prohibit the expansion of SARS-CoV-2, however it stays unclear whether or not this impact performs a job in illness severity.”
Jul 12 J Virol
Jul 12 ASM
press release


International unexplained hepatitis instances in children prime 1,000; WHO launches survey

The World Well being Group (WHO) stated yesterday in an replace on unexplained hepatitis in kids that 1,010 possible instances have been reported, 22 of them deadly, from 35 nations.

The brand new complete displays 90 new instances and 4 new deaths for the reason that company’ final replace on Jun 24. Since then, Luxembourg and Costa Rica have reported their first instances.

The tempo of recent instances has slowed over the previous month, however the WHO stated the development is difficult to interpret, given the delay in reporting instances and restricted surveillance in a variety of nations. Adenovirus continues to be essentially the most ceaselessly detected pathogen, however restricted adenovirus surveillance in most nations makes it arduous to evaluate whether or not charges are larger than anticipated. Most instances haven’t got epidemiologic hyperlinks, however some have been reported in Scotland and the Netherlands.

The WHO has launched a world survey to evaluate if the incidence of unexplained hepatitis in kids is larger in 2022 in comparison with the earlier 5 years to make clear whether or not instances and liver transplants are occurring at higher-than-expected charges. It added that interim outcomes can be shared as quickly as they’re out there.
Jul 12 WHO statement


Routine US childhood vaccines confer profound well being, financial advantages

Two research right this moment in Pediatrics element the well being and financial advantages of routine childhood immunization in the USA. Each research had been led by scientists from RTI Well being Options and Merck.

One research examined the incidence of 14 vaccine-preventable diseases with and with out universally really useful vaccines for kids 10 years and youthful over 5 current years.

Routine immunization lowered the incidence of all studied ailments, from 17% for flu to 100% for diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae sort b (Hib), measles, mumps, polio, and rubella. These decreases correspond to greater than 24 million averted instances of vaccine-targeted diseases for the 2019 US inhabitants of 328 million individuals.

Estimated incidence charges remained highest for flu (13,412 per 100,000 individuals) and Streptococcus pneumoniae–associated ear infections (2,756/100,000).

“Routine childhood immunization within the US continues to yield appreciable sustained reductions in incidence throughout all focused ailments,” the authors wrote.

The opposite research assessed the financial influence of routine immunization on kids born in 2017, discovering that vaccines averted greater than 17 million diseases and 31,000 deaths, gaining 853,000 life-years and 892,000 quality-adjusted life-years.

The estimated price of vaccination ($8.5 billion) was greater than absolutely offset by the $63.6 billion saved by averted disease-related prices. Immunization was tied to $55.1 billion in prevented societal prices, for a benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of seven.5, and $13.7 billion in averted healthcare prices, for a BCR of two.8.

“Along with stopping pointless morbidity and mortality, routine childhood immunization is cost-saving,” the researchers wrote.

In a associated commentary, Michael Warren, MD, MPH, and Monique Fountain Hanna, MD, MPH, MBA, each of the US Division of Well being and Human Companies, stated that pediatricians have a key position in combatting vaccine misinformation and selling immunization in underserved communities.

“A concerted effort throughout all components of the well being care and public well being techniques can guarantee that vaccines stay one of many best public well being achievements of our time,” they wrote.
Jul 13 Pediatrics health-impact study, economic-impact study, and commentary


CDC urges clinicians to be on alert for parechovirus in infants

The Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention (CDC) yesterday despatched a Well being Alert Community (HAN) advisory to well being suppliers warning that parechovirus (PeV), a childhood pathogen with infections starting from asymptomatic to extreme, is circulating in the USA. Since Might, a number of states have reported PeV infections in newborns and younger infants.

The advisory stated all constructive specimens examined on the CDC are sort PeV-A3, which is most frequently related to extreme illness.

The CDC urged clinicians to contemplate PeV in infants presenting with fever, sepsis-like syndrome, or neurologic signs like seizure or meningitis with no identified trigger and check for the virus if indicators and signs recommend PeV.

As a result of the USA would not systematically observe PeV, it is not clear how the variety of instances this yr in contrast with earlier seasons. PeV testing has change into extra extensively out there, and it is doable that elevated testing has led to extra reported instances.
Jul 12 CDC HAN notice

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