News Scan for Mar 14, 2022


99.1% of shut contacts of Omicron-infected sufferers recognized by 10 days

Late final week in Rising Infectious Illnesses, South Korean researchers reported that common time from publicity to COVID-19 prognosis was 3.7 days in quarantined shut contacts of sufferers contaminated by the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant and that 99.1% of diagnoses occurred by day 10, supporting a 10-day quarantine.

The examine evaluated time from publicity to prognosis amongst 107 shut contacts from two Omicron clusters on Nov 24 and 25, 2021. In South Korea, shut contacts of Omicron sufferers had been mandated to quarantine for 14 days amid surges, no matter symptom and vaccination standing. Contacts had been examined for COVID-19 on days 1, 9, and 13.

Common time from publicity to prognosis was 3.7 days. Of all contacts, 50% had been recognized on day 3, whereas 70% had been recognized on day 5 and 99.1% by day 10. One prognosis occurred on day 13 in an unvaccinated youngster who had beforehand examined unfavourable.

Half of contacts in all age-groups had been recognized on day 3. Of contacts with COVID-19 signs, half of diagnoses occurred on day 3, and 70% on day 5. COVID-19 diagnoses amongst contacts with out signs occurred in 50% on day 5 and 70% on day 8.

The examine findings led the South Korean authorities to shorten quarantine from 14 to 10 days and to 7 days in occasions of surge-related restricted capability at quarantine services.

The researchers famous that unpublished knowledge from a earlier examine advised that the incubation interval for Omicron could possibly be shorter than that for the Delta variant. “Estimating the length of infectiousness is tougher than measuring incubation intervals; one examine that measured viral load of Omicron advised that viral load had diminished by days 10–13, which is in step with our findings.”

Whereas the simplest COVID-19 containment measures are isolation and quarantine, the authors famous that these methods include private and socioeconomic prices. “A ten-day quarantine interval could embody most individuals uncovered to Omicron; nevertheless, quarantine length could grow to be shorter after balancing societal price with public well being profit,” they concluded.
Mar 11 Emerg Infect Dis research letter

 

Assist device tied to raised antibiotic prescribing for pneumonia sufferers

An actual-time digital resolution help device helped clinicians at group hospitals present finest observe look after emergency division (ED) sufferers with pneumonia and was related to decreased intensive care unit (ICU) admission, extra applicable antibiotic use, and 38% decrease general loss of life in keeping with a examine final week within the American Journal of Respiratory and Essential Care Drugs.

For the examine, researchers at Intermountain Healthcare in Salt Lake Metropolis, Utah, deployed the well being system’s digital, open loop, medical resolution help (ePNa) system to 16 of its group hospitals from December 2017 to June 2019. Throughout that span, these hospitals had 6,848 pneumonia instances, and a treating clinician used ePNa in 67% of eligible sufferers.

The help device gathers greater than 50 key affected person indicators, together with age, fever, oxygen saturation, laboratory and chest imaging outcomes, and very important indicators to make care selections, together with applicable antibiotic remedy, lab research, and therapy setting suggestions, corresponding to ICU admittance, hospital admittance, or discharge. Median affected person age was 67 years, 48% had been feminine, and 64.8% had been admitted to the hospital.

Utilizing the device, Intermountain researchers discovered a spread of constructive outcomes for sufferers, together with a 38% relative discount in mortality 30 days after a pneumonia prognosis, with the biggest discount in loss of life charges in sufferers admitted straight from the ED to the ICU. Guideline-concordant antibiotic prescribing elevated from 83.5% to 90.2% (P < 0.001).

Different findings had been a 61% enhance in sufferers handled as outpatients (rising from 29.2% to 46.9%), decreased ICU admissions with out security considerations, and lowered imply time from ED admission to start out of first antibiotic, dropping from 159.4 minutes to 150.9 minutes.

The researchers say the findings are in line with a earlier examine involving use of the ePNa system in Intermountain’s bigger hospitals.

“Our examine discovered that clinicians had been capable of make higher therapy selections with this useful resource,” stated first creator Nathan Dean, MD, in an Intermountain information launch. “A few of our group hospitals have as little as 20 beds. We wished to validate the effectiveness of ePNa in very totally different healthcare settings.”
Mar 9 Am J Respir Crit Care Med study
Mar 9 Intermountain Healthcare news release

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