News Scan for May 26, 2022

Combine-and-match booster photographs proven simpler in opposition to Omicron pressure

A letter yesterday within the New England Journal of Drugs (NEJM) from Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention scientists exhibits homologous (same-vaccine) boosting for Johnson & Johnson (J&J) vaccine recipients was considerably much less efficient than mix-and-match booster doses when the Omicron pressure was predominant in the USA.

Roughly 18 million People acquired the one-dose J&J vaccine as their major COVID-19 vaccine. The research tracked COVID-19 circumstances amongst J&J recipients with no booster, a J&J booster, an mRNA booster, and adults who acquired three doses of mRNA vaccine (a major collection plus a booster).

The investigators collected information from Jan 2 to Mar 23, 2022, from the Rising Neighborhood Entry to Testing (ICATT) platform, which reported outcomes from drive-through testing websites, and included adults who had reported vaccination standing. The authors discovered vaccine effectiveness was highest for the regimens that included a booster dose of an mRNA vaccine and was lowest for many who acquired a single J&J shot.

Single-dose J&J efficacy was 17.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3% to 29.5%) in comparison with no vaccination from 14 days to 1 month after the shot, and eight.4% (95% CI, 1.5 to 14.8) from 2 to 4 months since receipt of the vaccine.

For recipients who acquired a J&J booster dose after a J&J major vaccine, efficacy was 27.9% (95% CI, 18.3% to 36.5%) 14 days to 1 month after increase, and 29.2% (95% CI, 23.1% to 34.8%) 2 to 4 months after increase. In adults who acquired J&J plus an mRNA booster, efficacy was 61.3% (95% CI, 58.4% to 64.0%) and 54.3% (95% CI, 52.2% to 56.3%), much like charges seen in these with three mRNA doses: 68.9% (95% CI, 68.3% to 69.5%) and 62.8% (95% CI, 62.2% to 63.4%).

“The outcomes of this research counsel {that a} single booster dose of an mRNA Covid-19 vaccine in individuals who acquired major vaccination with single-dose Ad26.COV2.S [J&J] offered safety near that of the three-dose mRNA vaccine routine,” the authors concluded.
Could 25 NEJM


1 COVID vaccine dose might increase safety after an infection, vaccination

Lengthy-lasting but flagging safety conferred by a earlier COVID-19 an infection or vaccination might be bolstered by even a single vaccine dose, concludes an Israeli research printed yesterday in NEJM.

A workforce led by researchers from the Technion-Israel Institute of Know-how in Haifa mined the Israeli Ministry of Well being database for information on all sufferers who examined constructive for COVID-19 or acquired any dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine from August to September 2021, when the Delta variant was dominant.

Adjusted COVID-19 incidence per 100,000 person-days rose over time since an infection or vaccination. The speed elevated from 10.5 amongst individuals contaminated 4 to six months earlier to 30.2 amongst these contaminated not less than 1 yr earlier than.

Amongst recipients of 1 vaccine dose after an infection, the adjusted COVID-19 price was 3.7 in these vaccinated lower than 2 months earlier than, rising to 11.6 in these vaccinated for not less than 6 months or extra. The speed of an infection amongst COVID-naïve sufferers who acquired two vaccine doses lower than 2 months earlier than was 21.1, climbing to 88.9 amongst these vaccinated 6 months or extra earlier than.

Immunity in opposition to COVID-19 an infection amongst beforehand contaminated individuals light over time, no matter whether or not they had acquired any dose of vaccine earlier than or after an infection. “Nonetheless, this safety was larger than that conferred after the identical time had elapsed since receipt of a second dose of vaccine amongst beforehand uninfected individuals,” the researchers wrote. “A single dose of vaccine after an infection bolstered safety in opposition to reinfection.”

In an audio interview, NEJM Deputy Editor Lindsey Baden, MD, stated that the purpose of vaccination is to not eradicate SARS-CoV-2.

“What we would like is to stop individuals from getting severely in poor health, needing to be hospitalized, and one step additional, to stop sickness that’s disruptive to their lives, however I do not know that we’re going to have the ability to cease [all] infections,” he stated. “That is a really excessive bar.”
Could 25 NEJM study and audio interview


World’s second human H3N8 avian flu case reported in China

The Hunan Provincial Heart for Illness Management and Prevention reported final week {that a} retrospective H3N8 avian flu case was confirmed in Changsha Metropolis in a 5-year-old boy, in accordance with a report translated and posted immediately on Avian Flu Diary (AFD), an infectious illness information weblog.

This case marks the world’s second recognized an infection from this specific avian flu pressure, with the primary case confirmed 1 month in the past.

The boy with the most recent an infection developed a fever and chills on Could 9 and recovered the following day. The company didn’t listing any doable publicity, akin to stay poultry. Changsha is the capital of Hunan province in southeastern China, south of Wuhan.

The primary human case of H3N8 avian flu was confirmed by Chinese language officers on Apr 26, and it concerned a 4-year-old boy in Zhumadian Metropolis in Henan province, situated greater than 300 miles north of Changsha. On Could 9 the World Well being Group offered extra particulars on his case, noting that he had extreme pneumonia and respiratory failure, however hadn’t succumbed to the illness.

Up to now no human-to-human unfold has been reported in both case.
Could 26 AFD blog post
Apr 26 CIDRAP Information scan and Could 9 CIDRAP Information story on first cas

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