News Scan for Sep 13, 2022


WHO unveils first world framework for accountable life science use

The World Well being Group (WHO) at present introduced the discharge of the primary world framework on the accountable use of life sciences, which addresses the unintentional or deliberate misuse of biologic and different life sciences, together with dual-use analysis.

In an announcement, the WHO stated the purpose of the steerage is to assist international locations handle oversight whereas rushing innovation and mitigating any potential damaging impacts. Soumya Swaminathan, MD, the WHO’s chief scientist, stated life sciences and expertise have the capability to enhance well being, societies, and the atmosphere. “Nevertheless, developments and advances in life sciences and related applied sciences might pose dangers brought on by accidents throughout experiments, inadvertent and deliberate misuse.”

The steerage spans 186 pages and covers matters comparable to misinformation and disinformation, managing giant well being datasets, growing capability for biorisk administration, and navigating challenges involving infectious illness analysis.

In line with the report, the steerage builds on earlier work by the WHO’s science division, comparable to its dialogues with the analysis group, with a lot of the work spearheaded by three working teams fashioned on the first assembly in March 2021. The teams additionally met final September, earlier than posting a draft framework in February that was open to public suggestions and feedback. The draft was peer reviewed by an exterior group.
Sep 13 WHO statement
WHO
global guidance

 

US pet shelters in ‘disaster mode’ after COVID-related drop in spay/neuters

Pet shelters throughout the USA are overcrowded, largely because of a falloff in spay/neuter surgical procedures and veterinarian shortages through the COVID-19 pandemic, reversing a downward pattern in euthanasia seen since 1973, finds a examine at present in Frontiers in Veterinary Science.

College of Florida (UF) at Gainesville researchers used practice-management software program to review information from 212 spay/neuter veterinary clinics from January 2019 to December 2021.

The researchers famous {that a} rise in backed spay/neuter applications helped lower shelter euthanasias from roughly 13.5 million in 1973 to 1.5 million in 2019, however the arrival of SARS-CoV-2 in March 2020 and associated fears of an infection triggered the suspension of nonessential providers.

In 2019, clinics carried out 1,217,240 spay/neuters, however that determine fell 22% in March 2020, reaching -80% in April. Surgical procedures started to rise in Could (-39%) however plateaued in July (-6%) and remained barely beneath the 2019 degree via December 2021.

In 2020, whole spay/neuters dropped 13%, to 1,059,388. Relative to 2019, 2020 spay/neuters declined 17% within the Midwest, 15% within the Northeast and West, and 11% within the South. The procedures fell 19% in canine and 10% in cats.

A complete of 190,818 fewer-than-expected spay/neuters have been carried out from January 2020 to December 2021. “If an analogous sample was skilled by different spay/neuter suppliers within the US, it might counsel there’s a deficit of greater than 2.7 million spay-neuter surgical procedures that animal welfare organizations have but to handle,” the researchers wrote.

In a UF press launch, lead creator Simone Guerios, DVM, PhD, stated the state of affairs is essential. “At the moment, shelters are in disaster mode, with overcrowding and lagging adoptions,” she stated. “Pet overpopulation appears to be growing, resulting in elevated shelter euthanasia for the primary time in a few years.”
Sep 13 Entrance Vet Sci study
Sep 13 UF press release

 

Examine hyperlinks diminished broad-spectrum antibiotics to fewer candidemia instances

Discount of broad-spectrum antibiotic use at a Japanese tertiary hospital was related to decreased incidence of hospital-acquired candidemia, researchers reported final week in Scientific Studies.

Though antibiotic strain is taken into account a danger issue for hospital-acquired Candida infections, its relationship with candidemia incidence shouldn’t be effectively established. To guage whether or not efforts by the antimicrobial susceptibility crew at Japan’s Itabashi Chuo Medical Middle to scale back use of broad-spectrum antibiotics had an impression on hospital-acquired bloodstream infections brought on by Candida spp, researchers reviewed information on sufferers handled with three broad-spectrum antipseudomonal brokers: carbapenems, tazobactam/piperacillin, and cefepime.

They in contrast month-to-month antibiotic consumption and candidemia incidence previous to implementation of stewardship actions (pre-intervention, April 2017 to March 2018) and after (intervention, April 2018 to September 2020).

The median month-to-month days of remedy (DOT) per 1,000 patient-days for the three antipseudomonal antibiotics mixed was 69.4 within the pre-intervention interval and 56.3 in intervention interval, with carbapenem DOT falling from 28.4 to 10.0. Downward traits in month-to-month DOT continued after the intervention. The median hospital-acquired candidemia incidence was 0.17 and 0.08 per 1,000 patient-days throughout pre-intervention and intervention intervals, respectively. Time-series evaluation confirmed a big change within the ranges of candidemia after the intervention (−0.16 per 1,000 patient-days). The pattern within the incidence of hospital-acquired candidemia didn’t considerably change between pre-intervention and intervention. 

“The lower in broad-spectrum antibiotic use (particularly carbapenems) achieved a sustained medical impression by lowering the incidence of hospital-acquired candidemia,” the examine authors wrote.
Sep 7 Sci Rep study

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