News Scan for Sep 23, 2022

Threat of neurologic issues in US veterans rose in 12 months after COVID

The danger of a variety of neurologic situations rose considerably within the 12 months after COVID-19 an infection amongst a bunch of US veterans—no matter whether or not they had required hospitalization, in response to a research revealed yesterday in Nature Medication.

Researchers on the Veterans Affairs St. Louis Healthcare System and Washington College used federal knowledge to estimate the danger and incidence of latest neurologic issues in 154,068 COVID-19 survivors, 5,638,795 up to date controls, and 5,859,621 prepandemic controls.

Most contributors had been White males, with a mean age of 62 years. Most had been unvaccinated as a result of the research interval, March 2020 to January 2021, predated extensive vaccine availability. It additionally preceded the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants.

The researchers discovered a 42% elevated threat of any neurologic situation, corresponding to ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (50% improve), cognitive and reminiscence issues (77%), epilepsy (80%), headache (35%), motion issues (42%), and psychological sickness (43%).

COVID-19 sufferers additionally had 2 extra circumstances Alzheimer’s illness per 1,000 folks than controls. “It is unlikely that somebody who has had COVID-19 will simply get Alzheimer’s out of the blue,” senior creator Ziyad Al-Aly, MD, stated in a Washington College press launch. “However what we suspect is occurring is that individuals who have a predisposition to Alzheimer’s could also be pushed over the sting by COVID, that means they’re on a sooner monitor to develop the illness. It is uncommon however regarding.”

Al-Aly stated neurologic issues are creating in beforehand wholesome COVID-19 sufferers and people with delicate infections. “It would not matter if you’re younger or previous, feminine or male, or what your race is,” he stated. “It would not matter for those who smoked or not, or for those who had different unhealthy habits or situations.”

Some neurologic situations persist, whereas others resolve, in unknown proportions, Al-Aly famous. “Given the colossal scale of the pandemic, assembly these challenges requires pressing and coordinated—however, up to now, absent—international, nationwide and regional response methods,” he stated.
Sep 22 Nat Med study
Sep 22 Washington College
press release


COVID-like virus in bats immune to SARS-CoV-2 antibodies

A sarbecovirus present in Russian bats evades SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in individuals who have been vaccinated in opposition to COVID-19, in response to a research yesterday in PLOS Pathogens.

The virus, Khosta-2, belongs to the identical class of coronaviruses because the virus that causes COVID-19. It was recognized in bats sampled close to Sochi Nationwide Park in October 2020.

Researchers on the College of Washington, who performed the research, stated Khosta-2 would doubtless be capable of infect people, primarily based on experiments utilizing human cells from folks vaccinated in opposition to SARS-CoV-2.

To conduct the research, the authors used sera from six vaccinated folks (three Pfizer and three Moderna), 4 uninfected donors, and three vaccinated people with breakthrough infections by way of January of 2022. The authors contaminated the sera with Khosta-2 cells, and the virus was capable of evade all antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The virus was additionally capable of evade monoclonal antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.

The first mechanism of evasion was Khosta-2’s spike protein, which hooked up to a receptor protein, known as angiotensin changing enzyme 2 (ACE2.) The authors of the research stated this could compel vaccine builders to contemplate making broader vaccines.

“Our analysis additional demonstrates that sarbecoviruses circulating in wildlife exterior of Asia—seven in locations like western Russia the place the Khosta-2 virus was discovered—additionally pose a risk to international well being and ongoing vaccine campaigns in opposition to SARS-CoV-2,” stated Michael Letko, PhD a virologist and corresponding creator of the research, in a College of Washington press launch.
Sep 22 PLoS Pathog study
Sep 22 College of Washington press release


H1N2v flu infects Georgia swine handler and fairgoer

The US Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention (CDC) at present reported one other variant H1N2 (H1N2v) flu an infection, this time in a Georgia baby. Like many of the different related circumstances, the kid had contact with pigs and had attended agricultural gala’s earlier than signs started.

Investigators discovered that the affected person was not hospitalized and has since recovered. No respiratory diseases had occurred in any family contacts, and no person-to-person H1N2v transmission was reported.

The sickness raises the season’s variety of variant flu infections to eight from six states. Six concerned H1N2v, and two had been linked to H3N2v. In August, the CDC issued a well being advisory that urged healthcare suppliers to watch for variant flu infections and it stated it anticipated extra circumstances to floor in the course of the ongoing agricultural truthful season.
Sep 23 CDC FluView report


WHO specialists advise 1 swap for subsequent Southern Hemisphere flu vaccine

The World Well being Group (WHO) flu pressure choice advisory group at present introduced the really useful strains for the Southern Hemisphere’s 2023 flu season, which swaps out the H1N1 pressure for each the egg- and cell-based vaccine variations.

For the upcoming 12 months, the group really useful switching a virus much like influenza A/Sydney/5/2021. The pressure is totally different than the H1N1 strains included within the present Northern Hemisphere vaccines, that are A/Victoria/2570/2019 for egg-based vaccines and A/Wisconsin/588/2019 for cell-culture or recombinant vaccines.

In an accompanying Q and A, the WHO stated flu virus detections, apart from the influenza B Yamagata lineage, this 12 months have returned to pre-COVID ranges in lots of international locations within the Southern Hemisphere, which supplied the advisory group with sufficient viruses to help up to date vaccine pressure suggestions.
Sep 23 WHO recommendations
Sep 23 WHO Q and A


Six international locations report new polio circumstances this week

In accordance with the most recent replace from the World Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), six international locations have new polio circumstances this week.

Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Mozambique all have new wild poliovirus kind 1 circumstances. That is Afghanistan’s second case in 2022; final 12 months the nation reported 4 circumstances. In Pakistan, 2 polio circumstances had been recorded, bringing the 2022 whole to 19. In Mozambique, intensified surveillance has tracked 1 new polio case, bringing the yearly whole to six in that nation.

Benin and the Democratic Republic of the Congo reported circumstances of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus kind 2 (cVDPV2). Benin has 2 circumstances, with 6 whole reported this 12 months. The DRC has 1 case, however its 2022 whole is 111, up from 28 circumstances in 2021.

Malawi has two circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus kind 1 (cVDPV1) circumstances. These are the primary reported within the nation; final 12 months one wild-type case was reported.
Sep 21 GPEI update

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